Cofradía: el otro lado de la Luna (Saga Cofradía nº 1) (Spanish Edition)

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Author had a few ideas that I liked that living itself costs, space suits had a few good ideas, the comparison of life on Earth and Moon was cool too , but I feel like he had material for few books but decided to put everything into one just to make more fake impact on reader. Now everything explodes, space tech everywhere, sex everywhere, no laws and all it just makes me yawn because there is nothing really there. I also think there were way too many characters for author to handle.

My Kindle version had no spaces between paragraphs that jumped from one character to another ant it was hard as hell to read and follow the plot sometimes. And with everyone in love with everyone and everyone looking amazing it was hard to tell who was who and who's family alliance or enemies they were. View all 51 comments. Sep 02, Robyn rated it really liked it Shelves: This one is hard for me to evaluate. I did not click with the story at all for a good third of the book, although the last third was pretty fantastic. The tech was brilliantly imagined and I appreciated how well thought out the science was to my untrained eye.

I loved some of the characters. Where I didn't enjoy it was exactly why many have loved it - the much acclaimed grittiness just didn't do it for me. Many of the societal structures McDonald imagines, especially the endless parties, didn' This one is hard for me to evaluate. Many of the societal structures McDonald imagines, especially the endless parties, didn't resonate with me.

Nonetheless, once I fell for the book - I think it was Adriana's personal history that did it - I was absolutely captured by the Corta family. I'm sure I'll be reading the second. This book was confusing, too fast paced and encompassed too many points of view to be really absorbed by the readers.

Nonetheless the story of families feuding agains each other for power is a classic tale that can be enjoyed by almost everyone, and to its core , this book was exactly that, the only difference is that the it happens on the moon in a futuristic society. There are things I had against this book, the use of graphic scenes when there were none needed , the speed in which you were e This book was confusing, too fast paced and encompassed too many points of view to be really absorbed by the readers.

There are things I had against this book, the use of graphic scenes when there were none needed , the speed in which you were expected to jump from perspective to perspective. But I also liked that it had a sense of family. In conclusion not a great book, not the worst one I have read. The comparisons for Luna: New Moon are seemingly endless: Just like these classics, the Mafia-styled families are doing all they can to increase their wealth and holdings at the expense of everyone else.

As in his book, Brasyl , which is set in a future South America, McDonald uses Brazilians as his main characters, but this time, they are mining the Moon for raw material. The scenes set on the surface were among the best in the book. Even though I see dozens of 4- and 5-stars reviews, I struggled to get into this book. I didn't connect with most of the characters, with the exception of Marina Calzaghe. Most of the other characters are completely unsympathetic, simple cutthroats with no morals or purpose other than to grab more than the next guy. The book constantly jumps from viewpoint to viewpoint of the sons and daughters of the Corta family.

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The thing that bothered me most is that while the Corta siblings are the ones we are supposed to care about, there is little in the story to make me want to care about them. I understand they are competing against each other for the family mining company, while attempting to protect each other from other competing families that want to destroy them, but they really had no redeemable characteristics that drew me to them.

As expected from this author, the world-building is spectacular, which actually increased my rating. McDonald really created an exceedingly harsh, believable world. It reminded me a lot of Los Angeles as depicted in the brilliant movie, Blade Runner. The writing is interesting, especially considering that it is written in third-person present tense. That took some getting used to, but ultimately, the book is well-written and well-developed.

If you enjoy complex storylines that employ mafia-style generational families and all that entails, this one is right up your alley. Oct 18, Efka rated it it was amazing Shelves: It's a strange thing, that occasionally it takes a whole lot of time to read a book that I really, really like.

I'm not sure if it is because these books are not what you might call "a page-turner", them being slow paced, full of details and intrigues, or is it because I subconsciously tend to read them slowly, savoring every moment and every line like having an expensive, well matured drink in your bar - you don't down them in a single gulp or even worse, mix it with cola and pour on the rocks. It's just not the right way. The same can be said about Luna: This book, it took me quite a while to finish, despite the fact that it took only a quarter of it or so before I realized it will be a great read.

And indeed it is. The anotation dubs this book as a "The Game of Thrones Sure, there's no Westeros, no magic, no great castles and deep woods and definitely no dragons in a literall meaning of this word, at least , but the grit, the trickery, manipulation and cruelty this book can offer really won't make you longing for it's much more cheered-on cousin. I won't give up any details about the setting or the plot as it inevitably would lead to some major spoilers, but what I can say, is that never in the books I've read before the colonized moon seemed so alive, so right and so deadly at the same time.

The real treasure are the people, though. They are so full, so well-written that in the end you FEEL them, you know their motivations, you can predict their actions, like you are in their heads. There's a lot of different viewpoints, there's a lot of different secondary and tertiary characters, and still none of them seems to be generic or sort of a puppet or unimportant. That's quite an achievement. Yes, it does take some sweet time before things get really going. But the worldbuilding's still grandeur since page one. I really hope that CBS studios, owning the tv-adaptation rights, will take advantage of it and sometime in the future we all will get a tv-show based on this book.

If done right, this could be a huge hit. I'm not very generous in handing out stars, as you might know, but Luna: It is a perfect sci-fi, albeit a little soft, peppered with abundant suspense, great characters and a never ending, intense battle for power. Ian McDonald succeeded in creating a wonderful setting and immersive story, and I'm definitely looking forward to the other books of the series.

As they say, the first book is just an introduction, right? View all 29 comments. Mar 06, Sarah rated it really liked it Shelves: What a cliff hanger! I keep seeing this describes as Game of Thrones in space. I sort of get it? They have dazzling parties and beautiful clothes. Their lives are always in danger. We follow the story Ugh! We follow the story of the Cortas. A Brazilian family that heads up Corta Helio. They are the youngest member of the Five Dragons in other words- the five leading families and we witness their turf war with the Mckenzies.

We are provided with an epic cast of characters. Primarily Cortas, though we do get one outsider viewpoint who is slowly brought into the family. An assassin bug at a party.

The last chapter is where it all ramps up and then it ends. A little disappointing but I was never really bored and found the book hard to put down. Half the characters make your skin crawl. Rafa with his rage and ridiculous handball addiction and stupidity. Lucas with his raw ambition. Lucasinho and his endless sexcapades. I kept expecting the author to go: There are a few characters I really enjoyed.

Ariel Corta first and foremost. Adriana Corta- head of the family, also ambitious and intelligent. Marina and Carlinho were also very likeable.

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The world building was mostly well done. Everything is printed clothes, weapons, furniture, food, etc. There are four elements necessary to survival on the moon: Every ounce of the four elements must be paid for. Then I guess you just die of poverty.

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Everything is negotiable via contracts. I do feel like there were a few holes. Why bother when you can just go murder someone? I get not buying it all the time but not even as an indulgence once in awhile? Will I continue with the series? Going to check to see if my library has it as we speak. Jul 27, Liviu rated it it was amazing Shelves: View all 5 comments. Mar 05, Tijana added it Shelves: Apr 20, Marquise rated it did not like it Shelves: It looks like it's the new fad to compare any book that has as much as two camps squabbling to Game of Thrones , and if said rival camps happen to be families jockeying for power political or economic, then even better.

This marketing trick not only has become old too fast but is also rather counterproductive: I don't wish to elaborate on for too long, but since the claim was made and keeps being made, I'll add my twopence: No, this isn't anything like Game of Thrones for two reasons: Books and show are different. And two, the similarities are superficial at best, there are no Starks vs Lannisters in the Moon like it's been said, unless you want to be picky and count things like "The Mackenzies pay three times" as this novel's version of "A Lannister always pays his debts. Anyway, that's not the part that interests me the most, as I've got other observations to the book that led me to this low rating.

To sum them up as best I can: The economy was the first thing that turned the story into something utterly implausible for me. Helium-3 isn't oil, you can't just exchange one fuel for another while keeping the economic structure for one to work the same for the other after the name-swap. Clearly, McDonald hasn't thought out this well. Cheap rip-off of the central plot point in Dune here, without the in-world credibility the latter had.

And then, there's the social structure. Oh, I can get what the author meant by "no laws in the Moon, only contracts," even though the rational part of my brain objects by citing the instances where there's definitely law, only no law-enforcement institutions. It's the same principle as when in Westerns it's said a town is lawless because the sheriff, the Marshal, the judge, etc.

It's not that there's no law, but I'm not going to beat this horse much. However, the social behaviour, customs and Lunarite lifestyle in general definitely do read like the author cared more about appeasing those clamouring for diversity in genre fiction than about creating a truly varied, rich and multicultural world that is just so from an organic and credible evolution instead of inserted by the grace of the author.

Much like adding a token gay character to a plot as an afterthought or as a throwaway people-pleasing bone instead of bothering to write a good character that just happens to be gay. The way the author writes sexuality here is a good example of that.

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And the languages are another. I can get that he'd want his world to be multicultural, so the myriad words in many languages he's peppered the story with isn't a bad idea, since each Dragon is from a different continent and they've each clung to their own culture. But the use and abuse of words in languages that don't make sense in their context is a lazy attempt at infusing "diversity" into a story.

Or at least in "Globo," the language McDonald invented for this series but forgot to even give a couple words as examples of how it is like. Goes a long way in making your worldbuilding credible. I do love the idea of the five powers in the Moon being either underdogs from the South American slums like the Cortas, from poor African countries like the Asamoahs, or from traditionally non-powerful countries like the Mackenzies.

It's refreshing and a great touch. But I didn't appreciate it here as much simply because the author made it too obvious he was writing ideologically. What I mean is, he reacted to the common complaint in fandoms about the predominance of whites and white cultures in the genre by going to the other extreme and purging all Western white cultures out of his story and replacing them with non-whites. Except for the Mackenzies and Vorontsovs, but they don't count, you know, they're Australians and Russians, so kosher whites, I guess, since they're exotic and lack a dreaded imperialistic history.

Again, it's the "token gay" factor at play. One can question the morals of the Lannisters and the Corleones and the Harkonnens until the cows come home, but one thing one couldn't possibly question is that they're complex and compelling and make for interesting "baddies" in their respective stories. They can even steal the show from the "goodies" in some cases. You can like them for what they are, hate them for what they are, or love to hate them.

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In Ian McDonald's novel? I could see from the start which of the Five Dragons was meant to be seen as the Baddies, but none of them were worth the bother of wasting a second in despising them. And the Goodies are no better. All of them are cardboard, amoral and unsympathetic.

Quite the paradox when your Goodies are that unlikable. But when that comes together with your Baddies being cartoony, complete with one of them doing the equivalent of a mustache-twirling Mwahahahahaha reveal of the Grand Evil Plan, it's. Adriana Corta, the matriarch of the Corta bunch, could've been the redeeming element in a sea of poorly-characterised Dramatis Personae. But unfortunately, she was near-eighty, her time was nearly over, and we know of her interesting life mostly from flashbacks. The other character that'd have redeemed the lot of them is Marina Calzaghe, the brave American immigrant that claws her way up with lots of effort, but again unfortunately, she had little onpage time and her arc was submissive to and secondary to those of the Corta brats she was made to work with.

Soap-operatic, that's the best term to describe this story. And it's not a bad description per se, honestly. You take elements from several famous Sci-Fi and Fantasy classics, mix them and bake your own cake with the resulting paste. So, while McDonald's idea for the plot wasn't original, skill and imagination would've made it work.

He had a good idea for how people would live in the Moon, architecturally and technologically it was quite sound and it shows in the novel. All good in that regard. But in the actual unfolding of the story, there were plenty of developments that made the "soap-operatic" description turn sour for me. You know why soap operas get their reputation? Characters reacting to plot demands instead of human nature and circumstances. And that's what undermined the storyline.

Sometimes, there were entire scenes, and even chapters, that made so little sense and looked so pointless. For example, view spoiler [what was the point of the long scene where Ariel is masturbating and every single toy she uses and every touch are described in detail? What did that add to the plot exactly? Well, it's obvious now I won't be reading the next book in the series after this, and won't be recommending it either. And, by the way, the many typos found in this book need to be gone soon, because it's just adding to the complaints pile.

May 01, Joaquin Garza rated it really liked it Shelves: Folios 3r a 3v. Folios 3v a 4r. Folios 4v a 5r. Folios 9r a 9v. Nos estamos refiriendo a la figura del escribano. En efecto, la persona electa para tal cargo debe estar presente en cada uno de los cabildos, llevando las escrituras y tomando cuenta de todas las decisiones. El escribano debe cumplir sus funciones y asistir a los cabildos cada vez que es llamado para ello, bajo pena de ser destituido del cargo Folios 9v a 10r.

Folios 10v a 11r. Folios 10r a 10v. Folios 6r a 6v. Los mayordomos han de llevar todas la cuentas de la hermandad en lo relativo a limosnas, pagos, entrada de hermanos, etc. Folios 5r a 5v. Folios 4r a 4v. Esta se desarrolla en tres puntos fundamentales. Esta asistencia se manifiesta en tres facetas: Folios 5v a 6r. Folios 6v a 7r. Los hermanos gozan asimismo del privilegio de poder ser enterrados en la capilla69, para lo cual se establece expresamente que este espacio sagrado es de todos los cofrades, previniendo posibles atribuciones de privilegios o lugares determinados por parte de los miembros de la junta de gobierno Folios 7r a 7v.

Folios 7v a 8r. Pero ya lo hemos dicho: A substantial part of this collection includes the bibliographic heritage of the founder and the correspondence sent to him by several national and foreign personalities. The current work examines two codices of unpublished letters that were not cataloged and were,. This work aims to highlight the historical importance of this kind of primary source, namely the documentary value to understand the political conjuncture at the end of ancient regime, the educational reforms of the government of Pombal, the censorship of books and cultural events, everyday life and mentalities in the eighteenth-century Portugal.

Historical sources, correspondence, political culture, books, censorship. The institution is, therefore, over two hundred years old and one of the most important libraries in Portugal because of its bibliographic collection and for being one of the first libraries to open its doors to readers. In fact, the statute of ensured presence reading three times a week to all interested.

Throughout the nineteenth century, the library ensured reading to mostly citizens that consisted primarily of students. The aim of this essay focuses on a substantial part of the collection of manuscripts collected and assembled by the founder of the library. Joaquim Xavier Botelho de Lima and the many thousands that D. It is also known that the estate of D.

In a letter addressed to the Prince Regent, the Archbishop declares 40, volumes that include printed books and manuscripts. Given the diversity of numbers and the fact that statistics, called Political Arithmetic then, were in its infancy and the absence of a systematic catalogue of bibliographic funds, it is very difficult to reach an exact number based on the collected data.

One thing is indisputable: In order to provide a better perception of the rarity and size of the bibliographical collection, we should mention the valuable collection of Bibles and biblical commentaries, mainly the multi language bibles in Latin, Hebrew, Chaldean and Arabic, the versions of the Vulgate, the Bible translations into Spanish, Portuguese, Ethiopian, German and English5. The organization and cataloguing of manuscripts were the work of the librarian Cunha Rivara, who held this position between In a first page volume, he gathered documents referring to the overseas territories, mainly America, Asia and Africa.

The second volume was published in and included literature; the librarian adopted the classification by Brunet, dividing the catalogued papers of literature in nine sections: We have updated the spelling in this citation and in others maintaining the original spelling in the titles only. The third volume covers the History and the fourth contains news of codices and papers relating to the Sciences, Arts and Crafts. The correspondence comprised the thousands of letters that D. I-VI; and Vaz, Francisco coord. For instance, it arranges the letters according to the correspondent and in alphabetical order.

Despite not having catalogued all correspondents, the catalogue is a remarkable piece of work due to the amount of summarized documents and transcripts. This number includes the autograph letters of D. Now, we are going to reinforce the historical importance of these bibliographic funds and see how these letters are also an important source to other fields of history, literature and pedagogy.

The example of the correspondence In the current study, we take as examples two important epistolography funds of D. Both cases reveal one of the characteristic traits of this type of document: The patron gives rewards in the form of cash or access to paid positions, sponsorships to publish works, etc. In exchange, the client gives favours that he knows to be to the patron liking: In moments of distress, he does not avoid from appealing to the generosity of the patron.

I deeply regret to bring the matter to your Revered Excellency attention and it is not fair to concern your Revered Excellency with our troubles because we owe very many benefits, many favours, and much gratitude to you Revered Excellency. The work in question can be: In this work all transcriptions of the letters addressed to D. There is, therefore, a mutual interest in maintaining a regular correspondence; this means of communication contributes to the strengthening of that patronage that is a structured trait of the society in the political context of the end of the old regime.

At the time of the Marquis of Pombal, and by the hand of D. This position was withdrawn from him in late in the context of the political change that occurred with D. Maria I, which he regretted in a letter addressed to his protector In addition to this numerous progeny, he left a large number of literary works, in particular the translations of classics: Horace, Phaedrus, Cicero, Terence and Virgil.

He produced French and Italian dictionaries, works of educational instruction, lessons in Latin, The Christian Education, and a work of physical nature about a theme that at the time roused curiosity in Lisbon: Nouvelles aerologiques, Lisbon, In these letters, some Virtually all letters of Alexander Faria Manuel end with the following protocol: The novelty is the support granted to the Bishop in the publication of some works from to The letters provide details about the education at the College of Nobles, public acts examinations and adopted works.

New Moon (Luna #1) by Ian McDonald

In fact, some of the missives provided a detailed description of the intrigues and news from the Court. For example, one of them reports that Francisco Costa had been arrested due to an accolade he had made to the Marquis of Alorna In a letter dated in Lisbon on 19st, February , for instance, he reveals that the Duke had asked him to translate the Civil Economy by Antonio Genovesi, an author who at the time influenced the thought of the elites in Portugal, since his books were adopted in philosophical and legal education It is likely that this translation fitted into the plans of the newly established Academy of Sciences of Lisbon, interested in disseminating useful knowledge and the latest works on economics.

Blames the difficulties raised by the revolutionary situation in France for the delays in publications. Letter dated 2th of February Latin Law of New Christians letter dated 1th of January , in which he says that he will send a copy of this work. In this same letter, he says he has been admitted as a member of the Academy of Sciences, and it was in that capacity that he planned some literary works, in addition to the. The letters are an important source to assess the literary context and its development in the late 18th century, as well as the affirmation of a neoclassical tendency in the literary canons and the purism in the way one writes and speaks Scholars in the field of literature and the translation of classic works will find many documentation and information in these letters.

Similarly, the keen interest in Antiquities, archaeological pieces, gravestones and inscriptions are in agreement with one of the interests of the Bishop of Beja and announce the romantic mindset that was beginning to make itself felt in the Western world. The College that gathered the cream of national nobility continued to be the object of a special attention with the presence of the Court in public occasions, namely in the opening of the scholastic year. As a translator, his work was mostly about translating Latin texts to Portuguese or revising Latin texts to correct errors, such as the revision of the Constitutions of religious orders that he complained were full of errors and required immense correction.

In addition to the Latin translations, he also translated some French works. It is worth noting that the books are a constant topic in practical all letters and the main topic in many. Therefore, they also show us the literary tastes and reading practices of the ecclesiastical elite and of the clientele, who lived around that elite and that managed to gravitate in the circles of the nobility of the Court. Conversely, and in order to oblige the patrons, this clientele developed good connections with booksellers in order to obtain books and information about the literary news for their protectors.

Sometimes the news was not encouraging, as in July 22, , when he reports that he had spoken to Bertrand about translation of Civil Economy by Genovesi. In another letter dated 31th of January he writes about the brilliant performance of Father Pereira at the Academy on the previous Sunday. Sometimes the topic is the main or, even, the unique subject in the correspondence, as for example in the letter on 24th, March , in which he reveals that the had been appointed censor of the Latin Grammar written by a monk of St.

Jerome and a professor in Bethlehem.

He concludes the letter stating that there was much delay in permitting several works, relating it to the sensitive nature of the Court in relation to the French. We registered entries relating to readings, libraries and books. The largest category is that of printed books and other texts and we have included pamphlets and public notices in this category.

We organized this information starting with the reading practices, which are just three: With regard to libraries, there are references to the foundation of the Royal Public Library in and especially to the generous donation by D. In the next letter he gives more detailed information about the work of Broeder, which he says can be divided into two parts: He promises to send by mail whatever evidence there was. Idem, encyclical letter dated 24th of March , fl.

In addition to these items, the donation included a collection of maps, antiques and monetary donation of 2, pieces. The religious texts, Bibles and Bible versions, either original or translated are predominant in both printed and manuscript book references. With regard to works of religion and religious instruction, the letters are full of references to the bibliography of D.

As we said, the references to the classics and translations of classic authors denote the importance that classicism had both in academic teaching and in the readings of intellectual elites. The references in the letters are to the following: Cicero, Horace, and Nepos. There is also reference to European anthologies or collections in this field of the classics: These descriptions support the value of this kind of historical sources in the context of micro-history, which has had recent developments in French and Italian historiography, with the work of Jacques Revel and Giovanni Levi, among others, and has been established as an alternative to classic social history, inherited from the Annales This book assembles ten studies by French and Italian historians, which state that micro-history is opposed to a perspective of macro-historical analysis and against the idea of a plan as the main structural aspects responsible for the modeling of micro social phenomena.

In this way, some of the approaches are the biography of humble people, everyday life and popular cultural events; 29 This portrait of the micro-history, or if we prefer of each person existential drama is recurrent in the correspondence of Alexander Manuel Faria, which we will discuss later. I wished to leave to England but Mr Joaquim de Oliveira opposed and delayed the project.

By operating around me effective and favourable actions, harmony developed between us, which narrowed the communication and familiarity and in time originated a reciprocal and innocent affection between his eldest daughter Miss Ana Maria and myself …. It follows from the letter and the way it describes the affection for his future wife, that marriage resembled a kind of contract, in accordance with the wishes and interests of the father of the bride and certainly with the bridegroom interest.

In other words, the marriage appears to be a good arrangement that reinforces the client bonds with the protector, who also was a relative of the bride. More than pleasing the parents, he wishes to please the patron and seeks his endorsement. If ever there was love in this relationship, it is reflected in the expression a reciprocal and innocent affection. The birth of the first child and the invitation addressed to D. Little is known about Alexander Manuel and the biographical news we can attain come from the letters and documents sent to D. The letters of Alexander Manuel cover the years in which D.

We can divide this correspondence in three distinct periods. The first one runs through till May ; the second period runs until the arrest of the Secretary of the Board, in which he describes with such detail the accusations directed at him and his arrest in October As it is known, the Board not only censured everything published in the Kingdom, but also had jurisdiction over the teaching and educational institutions, such as the College of Nobles and the Lower Studies classes Hence, there were plenty of matters concerning postings of teachers, teaching licenses, and licenses for foreign teachers to visit their homeland.

Similarly, the public events, festivals, sermons, and other matters of a similar nature fell under the scrutiny of the censorship. For instance, in one of the first letters the Secretary informs that a request to sell talcum of various colours, for Carnival celebrations, had reached the board and that request had not been approved In some cases 5 he sends the drafts of what happened in each of the conferences, and in others he described in a letter 7 the most important decisions.

In either case, his testimony makes it possible to monitor the activity of the censorship, perceiving the issues that raised more discussion and the ones that were immediately denied the indispensable authorization for publications. Amongst the latter were the works and sermons related with secrecy, as Pombal suspected an undercurrent that congregated the higher clergy against his Government and centralizing policy One of the assignment of the Board involved issuing special licenses to certain people insofar they could read the books deemed prohibited From 7th of December , D.

Letter dated 23th of January The proposal was considered unnecessary, since the requests were registered and the dispatch was attache to the letter dated 23th of January The testimony of Alexander Manuel reports on the difficulties to understand where the powers of the Censorship Board started and ended, for example the issue raised by the blind in Lisbon requesting that street vendors should not be allowed to sell books and papers.

The matter went as far as having the representative of the blind ask the Minister to arrest a street vendor. The case resulted from the fact that blind people had exclusivity in the peddling of books, which was important for their survival.

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The vendor was arrested and appealed to the Board, which raised the question of whether the Board had jurisdiction over the matter or it should be under His Majesty. After much debate the matter was sent to the Minister to decide if the street vendor should be free and wait on the decision of the Chairman of the Board on what to do with the petitions The second period of the letters of Alexander Manuel refers to the first months of the government of Queen Maria I, when the change in policy produced in the Censorship Board the traditional changes in appointments and nominations.

In those days, like today and when power changes, the acolytes also change. Therefore, several intrigues and accusations to the work of the Secretary of Board of Studies begin to arise from the end of April and coinciding with a period of illness of Alexandre Manuel. Later, it followed the worst accusations of misuse of books. Nevertheless, the most serious accusation was put forward by the bookseller Rolland.

He submitted an application to the Board to make the Secretary pay for a list of books that Rolland had submitted to the Board for a license and that had never been returned The bookseller Rolland was also one of the witnesses that would eventually incriminate the Secretary, who lost his job and was sent to prison and deported from Lisbon.

A quantitative analysis of the list allows the gathering of important data for the History of the Book, in particular as regards to selling prices of foreign works. In any case, a library with 9 foreign works, and 34 volumes was not within the reach of many purses, especially if the works had figures, such as the fables of La Fontaine that the letter states are printed. In his letter Rolland asks if the Bishop has the books in his possession The question refers to the Board organization and its activity of censorship of works, confiscation by Customs and also the sale of books, which often duplicates they were bought by booksellers or even by paper shops.

Note the following passage: I asked certainly because of the figures. He swallowed hard and told me: I answered that is certain; and the money? I will deliver it; I said again. I sold many of the duplicate books used the money and now I will pay them. He continued it was very bad that these things were not noted. I can see many things that have not been noted Thus, even the Secretary confirms the badly regulated procedures in taking books away and in returning them and he himself sold many books. Even so, the charges against the Secretary disappear after a few months until the end of September, and he kept his job then.

Regarding these Jesuit books, Alexandre Manuel conveys the idea that they had little value and that in fact there were not so many as people had said or thought: It was evident and certain that the total of books from Portuguese Jesuits Bookstores submitted to the Board were not worth thirty thousand cruzados, and that no Book Merchant would pay 20, cruzados for all of them.

In order to prove this point I argued with the example of Livraria de Coimbra, which is the most complete and remarkable amongst the Portuguese Jesuits. Deputies Friar Joaquim and Xavier and examined its contents and they did not finding a single Portuguese history book, nor Portuguese poetry, nor a Prosody, nor any Book of theology, or Beautiful modern Letters; but only old books on theology, etc. Therefore, they requested the Board to exempt them from examining more Jesuit Bookstores Other books were also subjected to a closer scrutiny given the natural curiosity they caused in the learned public.

We refer to the banned books that the Board confiscated at the customs and were subsequently sold in secrecy. The words of Alexander Manuel demonstrate this point: Talking again about banned books, and books sold replied: admin