Inflation - History, Causes and Implications

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In the early s, when the federal funds rate exceeded 15 percent, the quantity of Federal Reserve dollars fell 8.

Monetarists emphasize a steady growth rate of money and use monetary policy to control inflation by slowing the rise in the money supply. Keynesians emphasize reducing aggregate demand during economic expansions and increasing demand during recessions to keep inflation stable. Control of aggregate demand can be achieved using both monetary policy and fiscal policy increased taxation or reduced government spending to reduce demand. Under a fixed exchange rate currency regime, a country's currency is tied in value to another single currency or to a basket of other currencies or sometimes to another measure of value, such as gold.

A fixed exchange rate is usually used to stabilize the value of a currency, vis-a-vis the currency it is pegged to. It can also be used as a means to control inflation. However, as the value of the reference currency rises and falls, so does the currency pegged to it.

Causes of inflation

This essentially means that the inflation rate in the fixed exchange rate country is determined by the inflation rate of the country the currency is pegged to. In addition, a fixed exchange rate prevents a government from using domestic monetary policy to achieve macroeconomic stability. Under the Bretton Woods agreement, most countries around the world had currencies that were fixed to the U.

This limited inflation in those countries, but also exposed them to the danger of speculative attacks. After the Bretton Woods agreement broke down in the early s, countries gradually turned to floating exchange rates. However, in the later part of the 20th century, some countries reverted to a fixed exchange rate as part of an attempt to control inflation. This policy of using a fixed exchange rate to control inflation was used in many countries in South America in the later part of the 20th century e.

Argentina — , Bolivia, Brazil, and Chile. The gold standard is a monetary system in which a region's common medium of exchange is paper notes that are normally freely convertible into pre-set, fixed quantities of gold. The standard specifies how the gold backing would be implemented, including the amount of specie per currency unit.

The currency itself has no innate value , but is accepted by traders because it can be redeemed for the equivalent specie. The gold standard was partially abandoned via the international adoption of the Bretton Woods system. Under a gold standard, the long term rate of inflation or deflation would be determined by the growth rate of the supply of gold relative to total output.

Another method attempted in the past have been wage and price controls "incomes policies". Wage and price controls have been successful in wartime environments in combination with rationing. However, their use in other contexts is far more mixed. Notable failures of their use include the imposition of wage and price controls by Richard Nixon. In general, wage and price controls are regarded as a temporary and exceptional measure, only effective when coupled with policies designed to reduce the underlying causes of inflation during the wage and price control regime, for example, winning the war being fought.

They often have perverse effects, due to the distorted signals they send to the market. Artificially low prices often cause rationing and shortages and discourage future investment, resulting in yet further shortages. The usual economic analysis is that any product or service that is under-priced is overconsumed. For example, if the official price of bread is too low, there will be too little bread at official prices, and too little investment in bread making by the market to satisfy future needs, thereby exacerbating the problem in the long term.

Temporary controls may complement a recession as a way to fight inflation: However, in general the advice of economists is not to impose price controls but to liberalize prices by assuming that the economy will adjust and abandon unprofitable economic activity. The lower activity will place fewer demands on whatever commodities were driving inflation, whether labor or resources, and inflation will fall with total economic output. This often produces a severe recession, as productive capacity is reallocated and is thus often very unpopular with the people whose livelihoods are destroyed see creative destruction.

The real purchasing power of fixed payments is eroded by inflation unless they are inflation-adjusted to keep their real values constant.

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In many countries, employment contracts, pension benefits, and government entitlements such as social security are tied to a cost-of-living index, typically to the consumer price index. It does not control inflation, but rather seeks to mitigate the consequences of inflation for those on fixed incomes. Salaries are typically adjusted annually in low inflation economies.

During hyperinflation they are adjusted more often.

Causes of Inflation

Annual escalation clauses in employment contracts can specify retroactive or future percentage increases in worker pay which are not tied to any index. These negotiated increases in pay are colloquially referred to as cost-of-living adjustments "COLAs" or cost-of-living increases because of their similarity to increases tied to externally determined indexes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about a rise in the general price level. For the expansion of the early universe, see Inflation cosmology. For other uses, see Inflation disambiguation. Austrian School and Monetary inflation. Inflationism Inflation hedge List of countries by inflation rate Measuring economic worth over time Real versus nominal value economics Steady-state economy Welfare cost of inflation Template: Inflation — for price conversions in Wikipedia articles.

Archived October 14, , at the Wayback Machine. Dittrich and Ernest I. Hanson, , Financial Accounting, New York: Harcourt Brace Javonovich, Inc. The unit of measure in accounting shall be the base money unit of the most relevant currency. This principle also assumes that the unit of measure is stable; that is, changes in its general purchasing power are not considered sufficiently important to require adjustments to the basic financial statements.

Retrieved September 13, Archived from the original on April 12, Retrieved April 12, The Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved May 21, Money and Monetary Policy in China, — University of California Press. Ropp July 9, China in World History. Monetary Regimes and Inflation: History, Economic and Political Relationships. The Monetary Origins of the 'Price Revolution': The Spanish Treasure Fleets.

Understanding the causes of inflation | BusinessMirror

Empirical Results from a Structural Vectorautoregression Model. Handbook of European History — Late Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Reformation.

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Retrieved 9 November Estimating the common trend rate of inflation for consumer prices and consumer prices excluding food and energy prices PDF. Finance and Economic Discussion Series. Retrieved May 13, Louis on August 8, Archived from the original PDF on May 15, Retrieved February 2, Gordon , Macroeconomics: Theory and Policy , 2nd ed. The Wall Street Journal: Classroom Edition 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed.

A Monetary History of the United States, — Journal of Political Economy. Retrieved January 23, In theoretical investigation there is only one meaning that can rationally be attached to the expression Inflation: Archived from the original on February 9, Retrieved January 29, From Hyperinflation to Dollarization? Retrieved August 21, The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Library of Economics and Liberty. The Fisher Effect and the Gold Standard". Quarterly Journal of Economics. In fact, gold used to be the preferred form of currency before the move to paper currency took place.

With that said, even precious metals are liable to being a part of speculative bubbles. Invest in real estate. Real estate has also historically offered an inflationary hedge. The old saying goes: In addition, rental property can offer the landlord the option of increasing rent prices over time to keep pace with inflation.

However, just like with precious metals, we all know that real estate bubbles can and do exist. But TIPS do not offer the opportunity for significant capital appreciation, and therefore should only make up a portion of your personal investment portfolio allocation. Although investing in bonds may feel safer, historically, bonds have failed to outpace inflation, and have at times been crushed during hyper-inflationary periods. Over the long term, the only source of inflation-beating returns has been the stock market.

Equities have historically beat bonds because of the ability of corporations to pass price increases along to their consumers, resulting in higher income and returns for both the company and its investors. If you have the investment risk tolerance for the volatility and a time horizon of greater than 20 years until retirement, consider dividend-paying securities. Dividend stocks offer a hedge against inflation because dividends normally increase on an annual basis at a rate which outpaces that of inflation.

This almost guarantees stock price appreciation at a similar pace, while offering the further benefit of compounding when dividends are reinvested. The fact is that you are probably going to need a lot more money for retirement than you think you will. There are two ways to get to your new benchmark: Save more, or invest more aggressively.

Saving more is probably the easiest and most proactive thing you can do to ensure your ability to fund a comfortable retirement. Chances are, you could and this will help protect you from future inflation. See some of these planning strategies for how much to save for retirement based on age. Who would have believed the return on investment you could have gotten from the purchase of a Mark McGwire rookie card during his first year in Major League Baseball, or a Limited-Edition G.

Joe in its original packaging? Buying and selling collectibles can actually offer great inflation-adjusted returns, while also being a fun and interesting hobby. Become a patron of the arts. The strategic acquisition of photography, paintings, sculptures and other art can often provide inflation-beating returns, though certainly not always. My suggestion would be to find the best of both worlds, a valuable piece of fine art that you truly appreciate and will not be in a hurry to sell. Like it or not, inflation is real. Ignoring the effects that inflation can and will have on your long-term savings is probably one of the biggest mistakes that many investors make.

Understanding the detrimental causes and effects of inflation is the first step to making long-term decisions to mitigate the risks. But the next step is taking action. Consider the ten tips above to help you overcome the devastating effects inflation can have on your future retirement. What actions are you taking to ensure that your portfolio returns outpace inflation? Share your best tips in the comments below! Pat S is an active duty military officer. On his off time he enjoys working out, reading, writing and spending time with his dog.

Understanding the causes of inflation

Pat became interested in personal finance after several costly mistakes early in his military career that could have been avoided by a basic understanding of personal finance. If the peso devalued by 8 percent against the US dollar since the start of the year, this benefit is offset against the inflation rate, which is now at 6.

Since the Philippines is also a net importing country, meaning we have a balance of trade deficit, having a weaker peso definitely contributes to the rising prices of consumer goods. Inflation also slows down economic growth since interest rates are directly correlated to inflation rates.

What is Inflation?

Think about it, as interest rates moves up, the consumer lending rates moves up also, making it more difficult for borrowers to meet their monthly amortizations for their auto loans, housing loans and other consumer loans. This would result in a slowdown in demand since people will hold off on their major purchases. Similarly, companies that have a higher borrowing cost, will have to pass this on to the prices of their products and services, resulting in additional price increases which, in turn, add to inflation.

Inflation Cause and Effect

Understanding the causes of inflation is one thing but knowing how to stop it is another matter altogether. Sunday, December 16, Business as usual in Champions League?